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(中/英文版)国际人权观察组织就新加坡总理李显龙访问美国致函奥巴马总统(上) Human Right Watch Org letter to President Obama on the state visit of Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong to USA(part one)

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国际人权观察组织就新加坡总理李显龙访问美国致函奥巴马总统(上)

人权观察组织

转载自https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/07/08/letter-president-obama

相关链接:

《国际人权观察组织就新加坡总理李显龙访问美国致函奥巴马总统》(下)

https://wangruirong.wordpress.com/2016/07/30/

您将在201682日迎接新加坡总理进行国事访问。

我们在此致函提醒您有关人权的主要的问题。我们希望您能在公开和私下的场合向他提出有关言论自由、集会结社和组织自由权利和同性念社群等方面的问题。我们在这封信里向您提供有关这些问题的详细附件。(注:见下篇)

新加坡的政治环境是令人高度窒息的。它们的公民在表达自己的意见、组织与和平集会等基本权利面对着一些限制条例。新加坡政府有效的控制了印刷媒体和在线媒体的渠道,政府强制他们必须接受注册和提交一笔相当数额的保证金。政府使用模糊和过于广泛涉及道德行为、(国家)安全条规和种族与宗教的法律约定的,有针对性的起诉哪些在社交网上发表评论有关政治课题的博客。例如博客欧如鹏(Alex Au)是一名活跃的博客和推动同性恋社区的活跃分子。由于他于2015年正月份在网上发布了一份评论有关挑战法院处理两宗涉及反鸡奸的法律案件,而被控告触犯了“诽谤司法”的古老犯罪。

敢于发言的活跃分子被控于骚扰罪。在2016年刻意盘问了政治活跃分子和博客鄞玉林和长期从事社会活动分子张素兰。警方指控他们在补选投票日前破坏了选举法令有关在冷静日期间限制政治宣传活动的规定。当他们在脸书(FACEBOOK)发表了自己的帖子时,警方对他们迅速采取执法行动。

既然选举法令已经特别说明允许,“个人之间传播到其他个人的政治观点,在不是属于非商业性质的基础上,可以使用互联网”。警方人员对付个别人士的行动是前所未有的。警方采取高压手段搜查张素兰和鄞玉林的住宅,并拿走了属于他们个人的手机和电脑。很明显的,这是一种对社会活动者进行活动的一种直截了当的恐吓。

在过去年代里,新加坡政府不断地使用具有政治动机的名誉诽谤诉讼,通过起诉破产以压制反对者和反对党发出声音。在不久之前,总理李显龙起诉如上所叙述的鄞玉林诽谤案件。他向鄞玉林提出了数十万元的名誉赔偿的要求。他指控鄞玉林在网上发布了一份批评政府管理公积金的帖子。在2015年,法院裁决鄞玉林支付他15万元新币(合折美金111,166元)名誉损失和29千元(合折美金21,492元)。

公共游行示威和其他的集会仍然是受到一些条件的限制。任何人要在芳林公园,即“演说者角落”所在处以外的地区举行示威和其他的集会就必须申请。即便是在芳林公园范围内举行的活动都可能会被起诉或受到当局的骚扰。社会活动分子Jolovan Wham在芳林公园里组织的“与占领者团结在一起”时,由于有两名香港公民的参与,他在过后接到了警方“严厉的警告信”。尽管在举行时集会时,他事先已经明确地说明,并在集会当天展示了说明了有关在新加坡的法令下,非新加坡公民是不准参与有关的活动的。其他活动份子被控举行非法/不被批准的游行”,被控理由是因为他们在芳林公园网上申请表格上是在”演说”项目而不是在”游行”项目之前打勾。使用芳林公园的在线注册表格的一栏是“演说”,另一栏是“游行示威”。即使是要积极响应上个月发生在奥兰多枪击事件举行一场烛光追思会,他们也加诸限制的条件,如限制演讲者在芳林公园的演说,以便造成这场集会不可能实现在同一天举行的计划。

在新加坡的大法典377A下同性之间发生性关系仍然是被视为是违法的。虽然政府声称它不执行该法规,但是,这条法律仍然存在作为随时可以被引用。政府不时对积极参与同性恋活动者进行个别的突击检查。他们甚至说同性恋活动是一个问题。法律条文本身已经贬低了同性恋者。

总统先生,即便是您本身对同性恋的评语也不例外。例如,2016年2月份的“艾伦秀”(注:艾伦秀是美国CBS电视台的一档热门脱口秀,而主持人Ellen DeGeneres以其轻松诙谐的主持风格备受青睐脱口秀节目)。您称赞了埃伦·德詹妮斯Ellen DeGeneres)并支持她的活动。当这个节目在新加坡播放时,新加坡政府把您在声明里的这段讲话删除了。

我们要求您在与(李显龙总理)进行讨论有关新加坡与美国双边的经济和战略合作问题之外,要坚决提出有关新加坡严重侵犯人权的记录。我们期望您能够明确清晰地向新加坡总理李显龙表达,美国政府希望它的合作伙伴要创造一个以公民政治权利为基础的环境,以保护社会活动者及非政府性质的监察组织。同时,制定的法律是用来保护人民,而不是用镇压自己国家的人民的。

我们特别要求您向李显龙总理施加压力落实以下事项:

  • 与其他英联邦国家一样,废除触犯“诽谤罪刑罚”

  • 终止在法律上和行动上影片检查制度;

  • 重新修订公共次序法律和公共娱乐与集会法律的条款,以便符合保护集会自由的国际标准;

  • 终止对鄞玉林和张素兰进行调查有关指控他们涉嫌在政治活动期间破坏“冷静日”的指控;

  • 废除大法典377中有关贬低同行恋性行为的条款;

  • 重新修订有关禁止传播媒体和其他媒体法令对同性恋者生活的正面描述;以及

  • 指示社团注册局批准同性恋社群(LGBT)在社团法令下注册团体。

谢谢阁下考虑我们上述的要求。我们盼望着与您的官员继续讨论有关的问题。

您诚挚的

布莱德.亚当斯 (Brad Adams)

人权观察组织亚洲区域负责人

(待续……)

Human Right Watch Org letter to President Obama on the state visit of Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong to USA(part one)

Related link:

1.https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/07/08/letter-president-obama

2.Human Right Watch Org letter to President Obama on the state visit of Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong to USA(part two)

https://wangruirong.wordpress.com/2016/07/30/%

 

人权观察组织

Dear President Obama,

As you prepare for the state visit of Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on August 2, 2016, we write to highlight key human rights concerns that we hope you will raise in both public and private with Prime Minister Lee. These include issues of freedom of speech, assembly, and association, and the rights of LGBT people. We provide further detail on these topics in the appendix to this letter.

Singapore’s political environment is highly stifling, and citizens face severe restrictions on their basic rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly. The government of Singapore effectively controls the print media, and online media outlets are forced to register with the government and post a significant bond. Bloggers who comment on political issues are targeted for prosecution using vague and overly broad legal provisions on public order, morality, security, and racial and religious harmony. For example, Alex Au, a popular blogger and LGBT activist, was convicted in January 2015 of violating the archaic offense of “scandalizing the judiciary” because he posted a critical comment about case management in the court’s handling of two constitutional challenges to Singapore’s anti-sodomy law.

Outspoken activists are subject to government harassment. In May 2016, the police intensively interrogated political activist and blogger Roy Ngerng Yi Ling and long-time activist Teo Soh Lung on grounds of allegedly violating election laws restricting political campaigning during a “cooling-off period” before the recent by-election. The enforcement action was prompted by posts they put on their personal Facebook pages. The authorities’ use of the law against private individuals was unprecedented since the election law specifically permits “the transmission of personal political views by individuals to other individuals, on a non-commercial basis, using the Internet.” The heavy-handed action by the police, who searched the homes of both Teo and Ngerng, seizing phones and computers, appeared to be an effort to intimidate the outspoken activists.

Over the years, the government of Singapore has regularly used politically motivated defamation suits to bankrupt and silence critics and political opponents. More recently, Prime Minister Lee sued the activist noted above, Roy Ngerng Yi Ling, for defamation, seeking hundreds of thousands of dollars for damages allegedly caused by a single blog post criticizing the management of the government’s Central Provident Fund. In December 2015, the court ordered Ngerng to pay 150,000 Singapore dollars (US$111,166) in damages and S$29,000 (US$21,492) in legal costs.

Public demonstrations and other assemblies remain severely limited, with a permit required for any assembly outside of Hong Lim Park, where the so-called “Speaker’s Corner” is situated. Even events held within Hong Lim Park can result in prosecution or harassment by the authorities. Activist Jolovan Wham was given a “stern warning” by the police after two Hong Kong citizens attended a protest he organized in solidarity with the Occupy Hong Kong movement, even though he made clear, in promotional materials and at the event itself, that participation by non-citizens was not permitted under Singapore’s laws. Other activists have been charged for holding an “unauthorized demonstration” on the grounds that they checked the box, in the online registration form for use of Hong Lim Park, for “speeches” rather than the one for a “demonstration.” Even efforts to hold a candlelight vigil in response to last month’s Orlando shootings were hampered by restrictions that make it impossible to plan and hold an event on the same day, and include restrictions on speakers at assemblies in Hong Lim Park.

Consensual sexual relations between men remain a criminal offense under article 377A of the Penal Code in Singapore. While the government claims it does not enforce that statute, the reality is the law remains on the books ready to be used, and the government routinely censors positive portrayals of LGBT individuals, and even mention of LGBT issues. The law itself is demeaning to individuals who experience same-sex attraction. Even your own comments, Mr. President, are not exempt. For example, Singapore deleted the statement you made during an appearance on The Ellen Show in February 2016, praising Ellen DeGeneres for her LGBT activism, when the episode was broadcast in Singapore.

We urge you to ensure that discussions during this visit go beyond economic and strategic cooperation with the United States, and firmly address Singapore’s seriously problematic human rights record. We hope you will make it clear to Prime Minister Lee that the United States expects its partners to create an environment in which basic civil and political rights are protected, activists and nongovernmental monitoring organizations can thrive, and where the law is used to protect – rather than repress – the country’s people.

Specifically, we urge you to press Prime Minister Lee to act to:

  • Eliminate the offense of “scandalizing the judiciary,” as many other commonwealth countries have done;

  • End film censorship, in both law and practice;

  • Revise the Public Order Act and the Public Entertainment and Meetings Act to bring them into line with international standards for the protection of freedom of assembly;

  • Drop the investigations of Roy Ngerng and Teo Soh Lung for allegedly violating restrictions on political campaigning during the “cooling-off” period;

  • Repeal section 377A of the Penal Code to decriminalize consensual sexual activity between men;

  • Revise the Free to Air Radio Code and other media regulations to eliminate the prohibitions on positive depictions of LGBT lives; and

  • Instruct the Registrar of Societies to permit the registration of LGBT organizations under the Societies Act.

Thank you for your consideration and we look forward to discussing these matters further with your staff.

Sincerely,

Brad Adams

Asia Director

to be continued…..  

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